A palace built by Louis XIV outside of Paris; it was home to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. The bureaucracy was modeled after that of the French revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. Beth: It's one year before the revolution of 1848 that topples the monarchy and brings in a brief period of France's democracy, the period we call the 2nd republic. Very traditional and pro-Hapsburg rights. France - France - The Second Republic and Second Empire: The overthrow of the constitutional monarchy in February 1848 still seems, in retrospect, a puzzling event. French North Africa covered three territories: the Protectorates of Morocco in the west and Tunisia in the East, with Algeria in the centre. Pays Conquis: a set of conquered, although supposedly independent, countries which were ruled by people approved by Napoleon (largely his relatives or military commanders), designed to buffer France from attack. The Bourbon family’s rule of France wou… Liberal reforms were gradually a warm water port, but the Turkish did not want Russia to go through the Dardanelles to get to it. Ruled by Francis Joseph, Bismarck intercepts letter between France and Prussia, changes it to make things appear as if Wilhelm had insulted the French ambassador, and sent it to France to initiate a war. A direct vote in which a country's people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal. The king from 1949-1878 was Victor Emmanuel II. I was led on from the Revolution and Napoleon to Louis Napoleon and the Second Empire because it seemed to me that the Restoration monarchies of 1815-48, however different in temper, formed together an interlude in post-revolutionary French history; whereas the Second Empire was the direct sequel of the First Empire, and the natural transition from the First to the Third Republic. Discarded under the Second Empire, this motto finally established itself under the Third Republic, although some people still objected to it, including partisans of the Republic: solidarity was sometimes preferred to equality which implies a levelling of society, and the Christian connotation of fraternity was not accepted by everyone. Start studying France's Second Empire and Third Republic. (1849-1878) He was the king of Piedmont-Sardinia and wanted to unify Italy by gradually extending his control over the peninsula. France, Britain and the United States led by John J. Pershing and James Harbord are victorious over the German Empire and Crown Prince Wilhelm. Nickname given to the Ottoman Empire because of the frequent ethnic revolts and the rest of Europe picking away at it. When Turkey refused, Russia sent troops into Ottoman territory. France defeated. The British Empire increased the wealth and prestige of Britain from 1600. Steven: The other thing to keep in mind is this is 1847, one year before France will change forever. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte completes coup in later 1851, proclaims self as Emperor Napoleon III; has support of many upper class and peasants who want order in France; legitimists supported him because he made peace with the church, wealthy businessmen and industrialists seen as equivalent of imperial aristocracy-- money as measure of value; Napoleon III promoted urban rebuilding, credit institutions, and more railways; major exporter of foreign credit, signs liberal trade treaty with GB in 1860 to lower tariffs; legalizes strikes in 1864; NapIII encouraged mortgage banks, which aided agri development; Bank of France provides aid to complete major part of French railways to stimulate country's commercial and manufacturing growth, only emperor can propose legislation; press is censored and only approved candidates can run; Bonapartist party is from remnants of Orleanism and dispenses patronage to get support through local officials; centralizations of economic and political power in France, poor foreign policy; his support Maximilian in Mexico ended in execution- major blow to international prestige; he also believed Austria would win war against Prussia and negotiated away Belgium and Luxembourg; his liberal reforms led discontent to spread, in 1868, he allows freedom of assembly, which mobilizes opposition in monarchists, republicans, socialists; in 1870, he orders plebiscite to see if people like his policies, they respond yes, but it's craftily worded to ensure success, Queen Isabelle abdicates Spanish throne in 1868; Leopold is offered, but he's from Prussian Hohenzollern dynasty; NapIII is scared of Prussia on two fronts and demands candidacy be withdrawn; French envoy sent to talk with King William I-- Bismarck doctors telegram of transcript to make French appear tactless, Prussian public react with anger; NapIII declares war without allies (Italy and Austria won't comply), Prussian troops surround city; zoo animals and pets are eaten; red posters are placed on walls of capital calling for establishment of Paris Commune, formed after NapIII's capture at Sedan; proclaim republic and later negotiate terms with Bismarck after proclamation of German Empire at Versailles, elected chief executive of the provisional government by the monarchist-dominated National Assembly; wants Bismarck's help in creating a very conservative republic; resigns fr monarchist pressure in 1873, gives Alsace and part of Lorraine to German Empire, in March of 1871, Thiers sends army to retrieve cannon belonging to Nat'l Guard; women alert neighborhood, they execute two generals; troops then surround city and blast through barricades, neighborhood by neighborhood; executions are held throughout Paris and communists burn public buildings and homes of the wealthy; 15000-25000 Parisians are executed or dispatched during military trials, made of Jacobins, socialists, anti-clerical republicans; organized Paris' defense and enacted social reforms; thinks Paris should govern self and appeals to other 'sisters of liberty', ended night baking, created Labor Exchange, recognized women's unions, revamped workshops; negotiates with Bank of France-- doesn't try to take it overf, glimpse of the future prole revolution; Commune was a socialist, proletariat dictatorship; the bourgeois' repression shows how they will react in future, radical republican; close assc of monarchists with the Church leads many to see 'clericalism, there is the enemy'; uses republican institutions to appeal to the little man (peasants, local elites, lower middle class) and get them elected to form foundation of republicanism-- elections show emergence of new political class, succeeds Thiers; new gov't of moral order tied to Church; attempts to first appease republicans (majority in Chamber) with republican premier; MacMahon fires him (Crisis of May 16) and dissolves Chamber for new elections; more republicans- a new republican premier, and MacMahon's resignation in 1879, dominates French Third Republic's political life; able to dismiss government cabinets that have lose confidence of Chamber's members; executive kept weak for fear of Napoleonic figure-- Pres was chairman of the board to the Chamber, accept very conservative republic, though prefer something to center; against Church on right, anticlerical left; gets support of peasants with high agricultural Meline Tariff in 1892, freedom of the press, assembly; right for municipal councils to elect a mayor (NOT Paris- fear of becoming too powerful a position); increase education and public edifices, education minister; made primary education free and obligatory-- state allocated money to build village schools with GOAL of producing republican Frenchmen; creates normal schools to create republican teachers, potent political ideology; result of loss in Franco-Prussian war; increasing anti-Semitic after financial troubles are blamed on them (stemmed from their prominence in banking and the stock market); with Boulanger increasing anti-Semite anger, nationalism moves from left to right-- now it's a goal to get revenge, minister of war; anger by loss of Alsace-Lorraine; conservatives see hero to overthrow republic; first mass political campaign in France, drawing on nationalist anti-Semitism-- convinced Parisian shopkeepers that Jews are to blame for troubles, Legion of Honor revealed to be sold to highest bidder; French company bribes government to fund Panama Canal project-- difficult b/c of terrain, malarial condition-- and goes bankrupt; support of Church of moderate republicans against socialists; FINAL STRAW- Dreyfus Affair, government sets up inquiry to convict Boulanger; he is told by supporters to go to Chamber, declare a dictatorship, but he refuses; officials convince him they have evidence of treason; he goes to Belgium, shoots self on mistress' grave, publishes La Libre Parole-- publicized Canal scandal; increases nationalist anti-Semitism; forms League of Patriots in 1892-- nationalist and anti-Semitic, Alfred Dreyfus- army captain, Jewish immigrant from Alsace a/f German takeover; handwriting on documents given to Germans about French military operations resembles Dreyfus'; court-martial finds him guilty, Major Walsin Esterhazy is found to be guilty; Dreyfus remains fall-man-- better to have an innocent Jew exiled to South Africa than compromise army's image, political right and Church increase anti-Semitism; socialists rally behind Dreyfus; Pres grants pardon in 1899-- his return boosts Radical Party with alliance btwn anticlerical moderate republicans and socialists-- moves republic to the left, separates church and state; new legislation (1902) exiles religious orders from France; state takes possession of Church property and pays priests' salaries. January 24, 1789 – the beginning of the election to the French Estates General or States-General (Les États-Généraux de 1789). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Provinces that were inhabited primarily by Germans, but ruled by the king of Denmark; they revolted at the prospect of being integrated into the German state by Frederick VII. Founding of the Second Republic. 1867 Parliament passed this which established Canadian nation-the Dominion of Canada-with its own constitution. seven weeks, Prussia annexed several north German states, Prussia's victory angers napoleon III, aftermath: Italy acquired Venetia in a deal with Bismarck, Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A nineteenth-century French painter, one of the originators of Impressionism. Austrian archduke proclaimed emperor of Mexico as a result of French intervention in 1862; after the French withdrawal he was executed in 1867. 5 of the worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire. Early in reign he emphasized centralization and material progress. This was distasteful to the Magyars of Hungary since it was tantamount (i.e. The French Second Republic was the republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte that initiated the Second Empire. Historians in the 1930s and 1940s often disparaged the Second Empire as a precursor of fascism. After Bonaparte’s abdication and exile in 1815, the monarchy was reestablished under the rule of Louis XVIII, nephew of Louis VXI, until his death in 1824. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714). In the decade after the second world war, as Britain struggled to square its diminishing empire with belt-tightening measures at home, it found time … The last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929. A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country, English nurse remembered for her work during the Crimean War (1820-1910), made initial diplomatic contact with Japan in 1853. France declared war against Prussia on 19 July 1870. Bismarck really wanted both territories for Prussia. Including France, this totaled 130 departments in 1811 – the peak of the empire – with forty-four million people. The point on the Crimean Peninsula where France and Britain attacked the Russians. A German customs union founded to increase trade and stimulate revenues of its members, A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group, a final blow or shot given to kill a wounded person or animal. See more. That the British navy could outmatch anything the Americans could float was obvious, and the naval blockade was crushing to an economy dependent upon coastal traffic. The Second Republic witnessed the tension between the “Social and Democratic Republic” and a liberal form of Republic, which exploded … Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of France in 1804, 11 years after King Louis XVI was publicly beheaded by his subjects. Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmontese king, A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. 1930S and 1940s often disparaged the Second Empire as a separate state by the popes from until. Constitutional monarchy after Garibaldi and Cavour help to unite the north and south the following article is from the Soviet. 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