The number of PES programs with proven track records is growing in industrialized and developing countries. Climate change will affect the availability of water. Geography. Only in very few mountains, such as those of western Norway, northern England, western Ireland, Greece and Sicily, does the average cover drop below 20 percent. In light of the significance of the Copenhagen COP 15 conference, the editors of this publication believe MRD's readers will be interested in reading this summary written from the perspective of Swiss researchers and development experts. This will count as one of your downloads. Mountainous regions are the most affected by global warming in France. The higher a location is above sea level, the colder it is. Chapters of the brochure deal with various aspects of climate change and its impact in mountain regions. We must protect our mountains and the livelihoods of those who depend on them", said FAO Deputy Director-General Maria Helena Semedo. Also, maritime influences are negligible, and continental climate characteristics dominate the area. World map: The countries of the world and their mountain areas 28–29. Burundi. You can sign in to vote the answer. The Andes has peaks with an average height of 15,000 feet above sea level. Cameroon. This functionality is provided solely for your convenience and is in no way intended to replace human translation. As adaptive measures are designed and implemented, the involvement of mountain populations is a must, as they have important knowledge and will be among those most directly affected by climate change and remedial action. People mostly travel to other countries in order to experience different cultures and different environments, a change of scene one might say. At the foothills (near the bottom) there may be a tropical climate, whilst the peaks (the very top of mountains) may be covered in ice. The mountain climatic region includes the high mountain areas of Ethiopia and the lake region of East Africa. Climatic conditions on vast, high plateaus also differ from conditions in valleys, on mountain slopes, or on particular peaks. Mechanisms for coordinating and extending such support include the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the National Adaptation Programmes for Action (NAPA), and the Global Climate Change Alliance of the European Union (EU), to mention but a few mechanisms already in place. This occurs because as altitude increases, the surround airing becomes thinner and less effective at absorbing and retaining heat. For the research and education communities, capacity development and transdisciplinary approaches will be important components of all these activities. Pictured: Ojos del Salado. In many cases, this will mean less water when it is most needed. How do you think about the answers? Mountains for trekking and skiing, beaches for sunsets at the sea, deserts for moon landscape substitution, and icebergs just to top off their coolness. Countries and Territories list. The large majority of mountain people live in developing countries. These gradually rise to form the Sierra, or Andean uplands, as you move east. The state borders five other US states as well as Mexico. That’s why, in IL’s 2020 Annual Global Retirement Index, we’ve awarded our highest climate scores to the destinations with options for every taste. Right now, the current climate at 1,350 metres is the same as it used to be at 1,000 metres in the 1960s. Open plains of northern European come with little to no mountains As such, they are readily available for cold outbreaks from Russia. Please add www.nationmaster.com to your ad blocking whitelist or disable your adblocking software. This category has the following 58 subcategories, out of 58 total. Four Major Climatic Controls 1.Altitude 2.Latitude 3.Topography 4.Continentality. Climate Change Impacts on mountain regions of the world . List of countries - Global Weather and Climate - Weather forecast and climate information for all countries in the world. The terrain consists mostly of hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys.The coastal plains are wide in the west and discontinuous in the east.. External support is needed in order to reduce poverty levels. Human factors such as governance need to be considered in order to avoid simplistic projections about the impacts of climate change. Phoenix is the capital of Arizona. UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres calls on mountain countries to take bold action on climate change mitigation and adaption . 10 years ago. Tibet and the Himalayas and other mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains or the Andes are good examples of this. Mountain Climate-Extremes are the norm-Great environmental contrasts in short distances-Large variations in short time spans-High Complexity-Effects on climates of adjacent regions-Make their own weather. Many of the efforts made to date in climate change adaptation are generic. The involvement of economic and population centers outside mountain regions in industrialized, emerging, and developing economies will be critical to achieving a tangible reduction of these emissions, as a major share of the greenhouse gases are released in these areas. Now is the time for action in addressing climate change issues in mountains. This requires urgent reexamination. Editor's note: The text of this article originally appeared as the final chapter of a brochure entitled Mountains and Climate Change—From Understanding to Action, prepared at the Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern, Switzerland, for presentation by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) at a side event at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen on 12 December 2009. The only other countries that could possibly compete have more mountain area are large countries like Russia/USA/China. An institutional or society member subscription is required to view non-Open Access content. The Carpathian mountain region is one of the most significant and richest nature refuge on the European continent. Canada - Calgary - Charlottetown - Edmonton - Magdalen Islands - Montreal - New Brunswick - Newfoundland - Nova Scotia - Ottawa - Quebec City - Regina - Saint John - Saskatoon - St Johns - Toronto - Vancouver - Winnipeg - Yellowknife. Located in the southwestern United States, Arizona is a Mountain States and one of the Four Corner States. “One in every two rural mountain people in developing countries do not have enough food to live a healthy life and they are now dealing with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Melting glaciers and the changing geography pose potential risks to climbers and the future of mountaineering. Given the paucity of reliable and long-term data on mountain climates and resources, especially in countries of the South and East, there is a need to establish long-term observatories and monitoring mechanisms that will allow more accurate projections of climate change, more precise assessment of impacts, and documentation of existing adaptation strategies in and beyond mountain regions. Because the atmospheric pressure and the temperature. Anonymous. You will have access to both the presentation and article (if available). Scoring a country on its climate is not an easy task, because everyone has their own ideas on what sort of weather they enjoy most. Contact, Password Requirements: Minimum 8 characters, must include as least one uppercase, one lowercase letter, and one number or permitted symbol, Access Institutional Sign In via Shibboleth or OpenAthens, https://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-09-00086.1, Mountains: A key concern on the global climate change agenda, The importance of moving beyond climate change, Managing climate change in mountains: A huge externality. Mountains are home to about 10% of the global population. As many mountain countries are smaller developing nations, they have not benefited much from the CDM program and the carbon market, due to institutional constraints and the complexity of accessing funds. All Rights Reserved. (Map by Sebastian Eugster, Hans Hurni, Albrecht Ehrensperger, Thomas Kohler, and Kristina Imbach, CDE, University of Bern, 2002. We don't have any banner, Flash, animation, obnoxious sound, or popup ad. Specific and tailored strategies will therefore be needed when it comes to climate change action. Some of the largest emissions of greenhouse gases come from countries with a significant proportion of mountain areas, such as China, the United States, and Russia. In some respects the climate is similar to the warm temperate upland climate, except that temperatures are even lower and snow occurs on the tops of the highest… temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers: Azerbaijan: dry, semiarid steppe: Bahrain: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers: Baker Island: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun: Bangladesh Many mountain countries, especially those with a high percentage of mountain territory, are developing countries with lower levels of industrialization, and many are smaller nations. Create a new folder below. Open access article: please credit the authors and the full source. Climate change is affecting the global landscape of mountains. Mountain areas are typically exposed to multiple hazards. The microthermal climate… Due to the country's varied landscape, climate is dependent in large part on where you are in relation to the Andes Mountains, which bisect the country from north to south. Payment for Environmental Services (PES) programs are a way to achieve this aim. Mountains are among the most sensitive ecosystems to climate change and are being affected at a faster rate than other terrestrial habitats. We need money to operate the site, and almost all of it comes from our online advertising. The Fifth Assessment of the IPCC did not specifically highlight climate trends in African mountains.Instead, it presented climate trends for the whole Africa and highlighted an increase in surface temperature of 0.5°C or more during the last 50–100 years, a trend that is likely to continue during the 21st century under both low- and high-emission … We covered this topic back in 2017, and today, not much has changed. Mountains and money do not easily come together. We can help you reset your password using the email address linked to your BioOne Complete account. Albania has a considerable coastline, 450 km long, which extends along the Adriatic and the Ionian Sea, where within minutes tourists can experience the mountain climate of Llogara and the warmth of the coast of Dhermi. Arizona has a population of 6,931,071 and an area of 295,234 square km, making it the country’s sixth biggest state. Climate-Smart Agriculture. Early European visitors to Korea remarked that the country resembled "a sea in a heavy gale" because of the many successive mountain ranges that crisscross the peninsula. Chile has an overall elevated topography with an average elevation of 6,140 feet above sea level. This could help transform currently perceived problems into opportunities for a better future in mountain regions and in the many lowland areas that depend on their services. Regions with the most mountain land are also the regions where mountain water for surrounding lowlands is most important—including the countries across the Eurasian continent from the Middle East to China, the Andean countries, the Nile Basin, and western North America . Basically, they wish to enter a different climate zone … Research should also focus on designing integrated mitigation and adaptation measures. Mountains affect climate by blocking wind and receiving more rainfall than low-lying areas. Some countries just seem to have it all. Hazards cannot be prevented, but mountain regions can be supported in managing the risks emanating from these hazards. It is hoped that the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in 2009 will be a starting point for strengthening these mechanisms. Many countries have established national focal points and regional bodies for managing climate change and have carried out impact assessments to determine how climate change is likely to affect them. Altogether, mountain climates are characterised by a rather distinctive combination of temperature, radiation, wind and rainfall patterns, as well as a larger variability of climate, both spatial and temporal (at scales from days to seasons) compared with lowlands at the same latitude. Follow us on Facebook to get interesting stats: Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers, temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool winters, mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter, arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer, tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds; annual rainfall averages about 3 m; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October); little seasonal temperature variation, temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers, semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April), tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds, severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing, tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation, polar climate characterized by persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow, mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest, highland continental, hot summers, cold winters, tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation, tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November, generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north, temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers, arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers, equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun, tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October), cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional between continental and maritime, temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy, tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to November); dry season (February to May), tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north, subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter, varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas, varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid, hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast, tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds, subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds, temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers, tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers, tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April), equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January), tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation, varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north, varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north, temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and erratic, tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and cool, relatively dry winters (November to April), tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers, temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south, extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north, tropical with a wet season (December to April) and dry season; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds, tropical; humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C, wet season (May to October), tropical with high humidity, moderated by the southeast trade winds for about nine months of the year, tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands, tropical marine; rainy season (November to May), tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June to October); persistent high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating climate astride the Equator, tropical oceanic; moderated by trade winds; a dry season from April to November and a more humid season from December to March, tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands, tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May), hot and wet (June to October), Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast, tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to April); rainy season (May to October), temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters, tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October), temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool summers, tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall, tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall, tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons, tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands, desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters, tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands, hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually, heaviest June to September); semiarid in western hills and lowlands, maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers, tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation, cold temperate; potentially subarctic in the north to temperate; mild wet winters; hot dry summers in the south, cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than half of days in year; average annual rainfall is 24 inches in Stanley; occasional snow all year, except in January and February, but typically does not accumulate, mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy, tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasionally severe damage, tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation, cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes, tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation, temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers, warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast, temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind, tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north, Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers, temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers, arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters, tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds, subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity, tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season (January to June), rainy season (July to December); little seasonal temperature variation, tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands, temperate with mild winters and cool summers; about 50% of days are overcast, generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds, tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds, tropical; hot, humid, moderated by northeast trade winds; two rainy seasons (May to August, November to January), tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds, temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to May) with hot, dry summers (May to September), subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains, subtropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall, temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers, temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild, windy winters; damp, cool summers, varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north, northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon (June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and October/November in the northern Indian Ocean and January/February in the southern Indian Ocean, tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands, mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast, mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq, temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current; mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time, temperate; cool summers and mild winters; overcast about a third of the time, temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas, predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south, arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog, varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north, tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun, tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds with little seasonal temperature variation, mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April), continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid, varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior, tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds, influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December, dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters, dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone, tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season (December to April), Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows, temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers, tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers, Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior, continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers, transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers, modified continental with mild winters, cool summers, subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers, tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south, sub-tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November), tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons, tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August), subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February), Mediterranean; mild, rainy winters; hot, dry summers, tropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November; islands border typhoon belt, tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average; average temperature 17.3 degrees C; humid, tropical, modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter (May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May), tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November), subtropical; moderated by prevailing easterly winds, Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers, desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges), Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland, tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation, Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior, desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic, tropical with a monsoonal pattern; rainy season (November to February), varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south, temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters, tropical; ameliorated by northeast trade winds, tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid, tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands, desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south, varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north, tropical; modified by southeast trade winds, subtropical; mild, little seasonal temperature variation, temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer, tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to June, rainy season July to October, temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast, dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south, planetary air pressure systems and resultant wind patterns exhibit remarkable uniformity in the south and east; trade winds and westerly winds are well-developed patterns, modified by seasonal fluctuations; tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico from June to October and affect Mexico and Central America; continental influences cause climatic uniformity to be much less pronounced in the eastern and western regions at the same latitude in the North Pacific Ocean; the western Pacific is monsoonal - a rainy season occurs during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow from the Asian landmass back to the ocean; tropical cyclones (typhoons) may strike southeast and east Asia from May to December, mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north, tropical; hot and humid; wet season May to November, tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May), tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation, subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west, varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes, tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October), tropical; hot and humid; modified by southeast trade winds; rainy season (November to March), temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers, maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south, tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation, warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall, tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April), temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms, ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast, temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible, tropical, with practically no variation in temperature; has two seasons (dry and humid), Saint Helena - tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds; Tristan da Cunha - temperate; marine, mild, tempered by trade winds (tends to be cooler than Saint Helena), tropical, tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November), tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds; dry season January to April, rainy season May to August, temperature averages 80-85 degrees all year long; low humidity, gentle trade winds, brief, intense rain showers; hurricane season stretches from July to November, cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy, tropical; little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November), tropical; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October), Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers, tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May), harsh, dry desert with great temperature extremes, tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind, in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns), in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns), tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May), tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December); winter dry season (December to April), tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon (December to March) and Southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms, Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east, tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather, principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons, mostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights, variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow, temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter, hot with seasonal rainfall influenced by the annual shift of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone; rainfall is heaviest in the upland areas of the south and diminishes to the north, sea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Celsius to -2 degrees Celsius; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent and frequently are intense because of the temperature contrast between ice and open ocean; the ocean area from about latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees south latitude in the Pacific sector and 55 degrees south latitude in the Atlantic sector, lowering surface temperatures well below 0 degrees Celsius; at some coastal points intense persistent drainage winds from the interior keep the shoreline ice-free throughout the winter, temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast, tropical monsoon; northeast monsoon (December to March); southwest monsoon (June to October), hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November), arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year, temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north, temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers, mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus, tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year, midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains, varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands, tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid, tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream, tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November to May), tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November), tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December), tropical; rainy season (June to December), temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south, temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior, tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry, tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March), tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast, temperate continental; Mediterranean only on the southern Crimean coast; precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north, lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the country, hot in the south, temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic Current; more than one-half of the days are overcast, mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are ameliorated occasionally in January and February by warm chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown, mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east, tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds from May to October; moderate rainfall from November to April; may be affected by cyclones from December to April, tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March), subtropical, tempered by easterly trade winds, relatively low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season September to November, tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool, dry season (May to October); rains 2,500-3,000 mm per year (80% humidity); average temperature 26.6 degrees C, temperate; temperature and precipitation vary with altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters, hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore air currents produce fog and heavy dew, mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east, tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April), tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March). 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